Lavender is without doubt one of the most popular shrubs to be found in any garden and with good reason too, providing a plethora of pleasures from the amazing aroma to the wonderful lilac flowers, particularly as they sway hither and thither in a gentle summer breeze. Planted alongside paths and walkways, as a small hedge, the perfume emitted is
therapeutic for the person, whilst at the same time attracting butterflies and bees. Planting lavender in clumps or in hedge form ensues a profusion of blossom and is more beneficial for the insects as it means they can jump from flower to flower with ease, compared to a sporadic planting plan.
Towards the end of August is the favourable time to prune and harvest the flowers, the soil temperature is at its warmest and once pruned the plant will have an opportunity to grow new shoots before the approaching winter, these shoots will then spring into life the following year.
Lavender angustifolia is by far the most suitable to grow here in the UK, the varieties Hidcote and Munstead being the most popular, the latter producing a slightly darker flower.
Both fall into the RHS pruning group 10 classification, meaning they flower on new wood and regular pruning will prevent them from becoming too woody.
The best time of day to harvest lavender for its aromatic properties is early morning, during this time the oils of the flowers are most profound. As the daytime temperature increases the fragrant oils dissipate and the flowers will then begin to open up more and this is the desired time to harvest for decorative purposes.
It is important to use sharp secateurs or shears for pruning as a clean cut is essential and one must avoid from cutting too low into the wood stem section as this will prohibit any new growth which is formed on the upper section only. Aim for cutting one third of the leaf section and in doing so forming a nice evenly rounded mound for aesthetic purposes
The cut stems and flowers can be bundled together with an elastic band or garden twine and hung for drying away from direct sunlight and in a dry sheltered location. Once the lavender has dried, approximately 3 weeks, the buds can be rubbed or shaken off and stored in a lidded jar.
There are numerous applications for dried lavender with imagination being key. The reputed therapeutic benefits include induced calmness, promoting sleep and lowering the heart rate all attributing to a more relaxed state.
To enhance the aromas of the house, dried lavender can be used to aid cleaning with a sprinkling of the flowers on carpet prior to vacuuming to release the fragrance.
Lavender oils also have multitudinous benefits and uses and a visit to the UK’s most southerly lavender farm based here in Cornwall is highly recommended. Here a wide range of products can be purchased, providing much inspiration too.
Contribution by Oliver David Cook on behalf of Green Landscapes Cornwall Ltd
Having made the obligatory bookends back in the mid 70’s, my path to wood-working was set.
Wood is one of those materials that you do not need a huge number of tools to be able to create and craft something from, a simple pocketknife is where most people can start. whittling....... a pointy stick, a bow some arrows, a spoon, a candlestick for granny.... and here the seed is planted for life; great oaks from little acorns grow. I am not saying we will all become great furniture makers or timber building experts, but you can make a living out of it. Over the course of my varied career I have often relied on my wood working skills in between jobs! To physically build something with your own hands I believe is possibly one of the most satisfying things that you can do. Start small and work your way up.
Hard or soft, interior or exterior that is the question. Wood has been used over the centuries utilising its natural strength, durability, lightweight, and adaptability to build virtually anything! Different woods have different properties. I will confine my thoughts to the UK rather than the global list of timber. At the hard and durable end of the scale is the mighty Oak, usable both in its natural or ‘Green’ state for traditional timer framed houses or dried for furniture indoors or outdoors. Then there are the likes of Cedar and Larch both known for their natural durability especially outside, as in roof shingle/tiles and building cladding respectively. Then we move towards the softer woods, mainly used in modern house constriction, these can be slower grown such as the Scots Pine, or faster growing and softer Douglas Fir. All woods have their own unique properties such as Willow for cricket bats or Yew for longbows; they can be used in their natural form such as Hazel hurdles or kiln dried for fine quality furniture.
"To physically build something with your own hands I believe is possibly one of the most satisfying things that you can do. Start small and work your way up."
Whatever you decide to make there is always a tool for it, if correctly sharpened and used it can make your life much easier; but it is amazing what you can do with just a hand saw, a hammer and some nails! One of the most important things to remember is that wood working tools are sharp so that they can cut or slice through the tough fibres of the timber, what you do not want is the same cutting edge doing damage to flesh and bone. I have never met a woodworker who has not had too close an encounter with one of his tools and displays the scars with pride; but I do not
Now for the juicier bit… how and what to do with that wasted area in the garden that is on too steep a slope to be of any use, except as an Eddie the Eagle practice ski slope. Perhaps you need to extend your internal entertaining house space by taking the inside out! Building a Deck area either alongside your house or to create a special area within the garden does not have to be too daunting a task. In a nutshell, or perhaps I should say an Acorn? There are a few factors to take into consideration. For the sake of this blog I will assume that you have decided on a decking area rather than a stone patio. I will also take a more practical look at the process. Things to consider.
What material you want to use, there are several choices; dependent on budget, aesthetics, maintenance, and environmental impact… the choice is yours? Woods like Larch or Cedar that are more water resistant than say pressure treated sort woods. Hardwoods such as Teak or Oak are at the pricier end of the range but require less maintenance. Wood-polymer composite decking, made from recycled plastic and wood fibres, has come a long way in the last few years and in my opinion is a much better alternative to plastic (hollow) decking and has some qualities that start to compete with the softer wood options; both on longevity and upkeep. For a more contemporary feel there is Aluminium, generally made from recycled products. I have recently come across and worked with charred timber planks for decking. A technique originally used by the Japanese in the 18 th century referred to as “Shou Sugi Ban”. The surface of the timber is burnt to enhance its durability and aesthetics.
Whether it is a slopey side of a hill or an uneven bit of useless ground beside your home, setting your datum or starting point is essential. I like to call it “The Motherboard”, all boards are created equal, but some are more equal than others! If
you get this one right everything generally goes to plan, if not chaos will reign! This could simply be your desired finishing height or the height of an existing step or patio.
"I have recently come across and worked with charred timber planks for decking. A technique originally used by the Japanese in the 18 th century referred to as “Shou Sugi Ban”. The surface of the timber is burnt to enhance its durability and aesthetics."
You need to keep the decking planks up and away from potentially wet ground, therefore a solid and stable sub-structure is needed. You can either use concrete slabs or blocks or 100mm x 100mm posts concreted into the ground, this is my
preferred option as it ensures that what you build stays there! I would then normally recommend 50mm x 150mm pressure treated softwood or 6” x 2” for those of my age bracket (we don't discriminate); smaller timbers can be used if space and height is an issue but you will need to reduce your span distances accordingly. Then to nogging or not to nogging is the question? A nogging or a dwang if you are in Scotland or NZ, is a bracing piece of wood fitted between floor joists to prevent them from twisting under pressure; only really needed with larger structures and greater spans. I find the combination of upright posts and the decking boards themselves do for solid structure, another reason why I like to use posts. Then its just a case of laying out and fixing your boards; two screws in each board on every joist, with a 5mm gap between boards; a good little impact-driver savers a lot of time and your drill. Until next time.
Garden Inspiration During Lockdown..
We have recently experienced what was known as a lockdown and there has been much uncertainty. But
what was certain was the extra time which had become available and enabling more time to devote to
one’s own garden and to encourage inspiration for a garden makeover or similar.
It maybe starting to notice particular areas of the garden, at certain times of the day, are more desirable to sit and
relax in, areas which went previously unnoticed before, prior to the lockdown. A corner of the lawn, for
example, subjected to immense spring sunshine, could be transformed into a landscaped seating area for
all to enjoy.
There has been more time to ponder how a section of the garden could be better utilised and the potential
of a transformation.
It may be an area is suitable for growing produce, ranging from small fruits and berries, a selection of
vegetables or even the planting of fruit trees, which could be trained in an espalier fashion against a south
Or, a sensory garden to enhance the time of relaxation...
For sound, the installation of a water feature and the sound of running water is extremely therapeutic and
would also entice wildlife into the garden.
For scent, a variety of different plants are available and with a specifically designed planting plan,
pleasant aromas can be enjoyed throughout the year.
For sight, from decorative hard landscaping creating vistas to formal and informal designs it is limitless to
what can be achieved. The choice and range of plants from architectural to wild flowers will have a
dramatic affect on the appearance of the garden.
All of the above will entice wildlife, particularly birdlife, which are enjoyable to watch and the diverse
range of bird song being soothing to listen to.
Inspiration may come from perpetually looking at a rather bland boundary fence or wall which would
benefit from climbing plants attractively trained across them. These could be planted in a raised planting bed constructed in front of the existing boundary either from brickwork, coloured walling or timber sleepers to improve the entire aesthetics of the existing fence or walling.
Does the garden slope considerably and could it be levelled or even terraced into two or more separate levels, each level having a different theme, from a lawn section to a hand landscaped section to a wild-flower area, imagination is the key.
Or is the desire to have the immediate area at the rear of the house transformed as an exterior room, an
extension of the house for alfresco dining, to enjoy those warm summer evenings when the weather is
An area of dapple shade is a great attribute to the garden. The construction of a timber pergola is the
preferred option with a climbing plant or two growing over the cross beams at the top to provide partial
protection against the sun’s rays.
Whatever the change made to the garden, the extra time at home has provided much inspiration for all.
For more inspiration visit The National Trust website who have uploaded virtual tours of their properties.
During the peak months of summer and particularly July, the garden more often than not is in
need of water and it is important to monitor all perennials, shrubs and lawn to ensure they are
receiving a sufficient amount.
Hanging baskets, container plants and newly planted summer bedding plants are the most prone
to drought due to being shallow rooted. Shrubs and trees will be deeper rooted and will be able to
source their water supply from further down beneath ground level, that is providing the water
table level has not dropped too low from a prolonged period of dry weather.
There are two sources of water supply available for use in the garden and they are tap-water and
rainwater, the latter being natural and more beneficial as it contains no chlorides and has zero
hardness. However, when there is a limited supply of rainwater, then tap-water will be the only
Ponds and water-features this time of year can drop to a low level and will require the use of a
hose for a regular top up to maintain a sufficient level, this will also benefit any fish, particularly
with the addition of a spray attachment which will aid in aeration.
To maintain a lush green lawn during dry periods can be challenging and it is advisable to water
only once a week to minimise wastage. An excellent suggestion by the RHS is to place an empty
jam-jar on the lawn and with the sprinkler running for a sufficient time, that is until 13mm
(0.5inch) has collected at the bottom of the jar. This is the optimum amount before excess water is
wasted as the lawn has now received its required amount.
With regards to watering plants, it is more economical and efficient to use a watering can
compared to indiscriminate watering by a hose.
Water management is extremely important during periods of drought and the essence of this is the
method of water storage and harvesting. The most popular method by far is the use of water butts
positioned below downpipes which then take the run-off of rain water from various roofs such as
garden sheds, greenhouses or even the house. With the water butt raised up on blocks, the tap at
the base can be utilised to fill watering cans with the valuable stored rain water. The question then
is when is the best time to water the plants and lawn of the garden?
The blades of grass will hold moisture in the early hours of the morning, the moisture retreating
to the roots around midday. It is a general consensus that to avoid evaporation the best time to
apply water is in the morning or evening whilst avoiding the heat of the midday sun. The morning
application is the most favoured, this is because the ground will be drier as the day progresses
compared to the evening time, equating to a reduced chance of mildew diseases and the arrival of
slugs and snails.
The final question being: Is it best to water from the top, watering the leaves too, or from the
bottom and the roots only?
The jury is still out!
Summer bedding plants provide and create a temporary floral and foliage display during the
warm summer months. The form of display can be within the garden beds, hanging baskets or a
container of your choice. It is an excellent opportunity for one to become creative, not only with
the variety of plants available but, with also the type of container which can be used. For
example, a disused wheelbarrow or a pair of old boots can make authentic and attractive
Although grown from seed, they can be purchased in cellular trays and multi-packs ready for
planting and providing an almost instant effect.
The majority of the summer bedding plants are categorised as tender/half-hardy perennials,
hardy annuals, half-hardy annuals and hardy biennials. The following are some of the popular
- Sweet Peas
- Busy Lizzies
Generally, summer bedding plants are regarded as being frost tender and suitable for the
summer months only. They are excellent for filling any bare or vacant areas within the garden
beds, the larger areas can be planted with what is known as carpet bedding plants. Essentially,
these plants are more compact and closely integrated which give the effect of a carpet and it is
possible to create various different designs and patterns by using different colours of blossom.
This is widely seen in public gardens and commercial landscapes around the country where
many thousands of plants are used, the design layout being from a computerised plan.
The private garden does not have to be quite as formal, but an effective display can still be
achieved, whether the same colour is used in large clumps or long singular rows, it is another
opportunity to be creative in the garden.
Hanging baskets are a great addition for any garden or property and bedding plants with a
pendulous and trailing characteristic will create the best effect. Popular plants suitable for
hanging baskets are Lobelia, Begonia and Periwinkle, but, why not try the edibles of
strawberries and tomatoes.
Colour themes have long been popular and simple to achieve, this is known as monochromatic,
where each container or hanging basket is composed of plants with foliage or blossom in
shades of the same one colour. Again, another opportunity to be creative.
Regardless of the choice flowers and the location of planting, either within the borders or
container, the addition of summer bedding attributes to the garden a feeling of completion.
There will be minimal bare areas, a surrounding of flora with a profusion of colour and one must
not forget, a chance to be creative.
Contribution by Oliver David Cook
THE CHELSEA CHOP
When one talks of gardening in the month of May, without doubt the Chelsea flower show
will spring to mind. However, due to the unprecedented events this year and the prohibition
of the coming together of large groups of people and social gatherings has equated to the
nations favourite flower show unfortunately being cancelled.
For the first ever time the show will be a virtual event which can be viewed online:
Nevertheless, just because there is no actual Chelsea flower show it does not mean that
we cannot partake in the Chelsea Chop.
The Chelsea Chop, to clarify, is a pruning method to determine the size, shape and the
flowering season of many of the herbaceous perennial plants. It is so called as it is carried
out towards the end of May, coinciding with the RHS Chelsea Flower Show.
It is suitable for late flowering perennials. But, why should we carry out the Chelsea Chop?
It goes against the natural instinct to drastically cut back a plant prior to flowering.
If a herbaceous perennial is chopped down to half its height, using secateurs or shears, it
will delay the flowering until later in the summer. The plant will be more compact and
shorter which equates to less staking and the flowers can be more numerous if slightly
smaller. This is because the top shoots have been eliminated and side shoots lower down
will develop and produce the new flowers. Overall, the plants will look much tidier and less
If only half of the perennial clump is cut down, such as the front section, this will induce a
prolonged flowering season as the rear section will flower first, then followed later by the
pruned front section.
Plants which can benefit from the Chelsea Chop are:
- Phlox paniculata
- Echinacea purpurea
The following are suitable for coastal gardens:
- Anthemis tinctoria
- Sedum ‘Herbstfreude’
- Aster ‘michaelmas daisy’
The Chelsea Chop is hugely beneficial for perennials subjected to the coastal environment
of wind and salt spray. The chop creating shorter and stiffer stems and more stability.
The Chelsea Flower Show will be greatly missed this year, so why not visit the gardeners
world website and their own guide to carrying out the Chelsea Chop.
April is an ideal month for attending to any existing lawn care issues which may have arisen over time. If
it is a newly laid lawn which is desired then now is advisable before the average temperature begins to
For the first cut of the year it is recommended that the setting of the lawn mower should be on a higher
setting. This is known as the ‘one third rule’ meaning one must not cut more than a third off the length of
the blade of grass in one go. Cutting shorter on the first cut can stress the grass and if cut too short and
scalping occurs, then a bare patch would be inviting for weeds to grow.
Towards the end of the month the cutting height can be reduced to achieve the eventual desired length,
however, this is dependant on the weather conditions and if the grass is growing profusely then more cuts
maybe required or the cutting height may have to be reduced earlier.
Before the first cut is made, an overall inspection should be made of the lawn and with a grass rake in
hand, rake as much of the lawn area as possible. This is to achieve clearing the lawn of any stones or
debris which may damage the blades of the mower, it also lifts the grass blades signalling them into life,
removes any unwanted thatch and an opportunity to observe any bare patches or areas where weeds are
making an appearance.
Aeration is advisable too, particularly in the areas which are susceptible to compaction and this can be
carried out with a standard gardening fork, the numerous holes allow the root zone more access to air and
water and the chance for the lawn to breath. Aeration also aids in controlling the unwanted thatch which
hinders lawn growth.
The key for mitigating weed growth is to eliminate the bare patches of lawn, if the grass is thick and lush
the weeds have less chance of growing. One must ask why a bare patch exists and does it occur in the
same area each year, this maybe due to the area having minimal sunlight such as under a tree canopy. If
this is the case then it maybe worthwhile considering reducing the lawn size and create a shallow garden
bed for small shade tolerable plants.
Where there are other bare patches of a noticeable size the ground can be prepared for ready made rolls of
turf or alternatively grass seed can be applied. Preparation is of the utmost importance here and watering
after the turf has been laid or the seed has been sown is essential.
With the possibility of having more time available, then those deep rooted dandelions, providing they are
not too in abundance and the ground reasonably soft could be dug out by hand.
It is the bane of the lawn lover, but the dandelion with its bright yellow flowers is beneficial to pollen
beetles and bees particularly in the month of April, therefore, if desired the first cut could always be
It should be considered too that if the lawn was to remain slightly longer throughout the year, cut on a
higher setting, then this may result in less weeds. The greater surface area on an individual grass blade
equates to increased photosyntheses, which then results in more growth and increased root system, hence
reducing the space for weeds to grow.
by Oliver David Cook on behalf of Green Landscapes Cornwall
In these unprecedented times the garden can become our saviour, a place where we can temporarily escape
from the tribulations which are unfolding around us and the rest of the world too.
The garden provides food and medicine for the soul, but it could be regarded as reciprocal, that is the
plants no doubt benefit too from human presence.
There have been scientific studies that plants may benefit from being spoken to by humans and a great
advocate of this was the Duke of Cornwall himself, The Prince of Wales.
It was back in 1986 that Prince Charles famously quoted ‘I just come and talk to the plants, really – very
important to talk to them. They respond.’
Indeed, the plants will respond from the release of carbon dioxide which is produced when people exhale
as they speak. The plants then absorb the carbon dioxide which aids them with their growth and through
the process of photosyntheses, oxygen is released as a by-product which in turn is breathed in by the
It also maybe plausible that plants benefit from sounds such as a person talking. Sounds are forms of
vibrations which the plants do respond to.
An experiment was carried out several years ago by a television crew who arranged plants into separate
greenhouses, each greenhouse having a different theme of sound. One greenhouse was silent, another was
subjected to the sound of people talking, another to classical music and one to the sound of rock music.
The greenhouse which remained silent had the least growth and the greenhouses with music being played
had the most growth, the greenhouse of rock music having the most growth of all.
However, from this conclusion it is recommended that one must not play loud music in their garden if it
would cause any tension with the neighbours at this time of self-isolation, but some gentle singing maybe
Why not try an experiment yourself? It can work with house plants too. Have two identical potted plants
which are placed apart from one another, but if possible the same amount of sunshine and water.
Continually talk to one and not the other and after three weeks, the results may prove conclusive, either
way it can help pass the time of self-isolation.
Otherwise, venture out into the garden and start talking or singing to the plants, select a different area of
the garden each day if possible.
When asked at a later date if he still spoke to the plants, Prince Charles responded ‘No, now I instruct
Whether you wish to instruct them or talk about the day to day events which are unfolding rapidly in front
of our eyes, without doubt it will benefit both the plants and the person who is speaking.
BY OLIVER DAVID COOK
MARCH FOR THE SUMMER BULBS
During the month of March the northern hemisphere spring equinox occurs, thus the length of
daylight is equal to that of darkness. From then onwards the daylight hours increase and the
gardening season is well and truly upon us and no doubt a floriferous spring and summer to look
A variety of summer bloom can come from the bulbous plants and the month of March is ideal to
plant the following popular bulbs:
- Cannas Lily
All of the above can be regarded as sub-tropical plants, which thrive in the sunny and warm
locations of the garden. Therefore, it is best to take heed of the weather forecast and not to proceed
with planting if a frost is imminent.
Essentially the difference between spring bulbs and summer bulbs is that the spring bulbs require
several weeks of cold temperatures to trigger the upward growth, hence they are planted in autumn
and remain in the soil throughout the winter with growth and blossom occurring in spring.
However, the summer bulbs with their preference for a warmer climate do not require this slumber
period of cold temperatures.
The term bulb is used generically as it includes bulbs, tubers, corms and rhizomes. They are all
underground storage organs, the correct name which classifies them all under one umbrella is
‘Geophytes’ originating from Greek, earth (Geo) and plant (phytes).
The planting depths can vary depending on the type of bulb, a good rule of thumb is two to three
times the size of the bulb which more than often equates to planting approximately 100mm deep.
Dahlias are root tubers and can benefit from being pot planted in a greenhouse for the initial growth
to commence and then transplanted into the garden, this is to ensure they do not succumb to any
frosts. It is however, the temperature of the soil, a minimum of 13c and not the air temperature
which contributes to healthy and beautiful dahlias, therefore, it is best to choose an area with full
sun and lighter, free drainage soil.
Gladioli and Crocosmias are both corms and to be planted approximately 100mm deep and it is
advisable to prepare the planting bed by adding some compost after loosening the soil with a garden
fork. The Crocosmia corms will benefit from being planted in clumps, whereas, the Gladioli should
be planted individually with the point of the corm facing upwards and by placing several in close
vicinity to one another, one will be rewarded with a fabulous display of blossom. Gladioli also
make excellent cut flowers for the enthusiastic florists amongst us.
Begonia tubers are suited for containers and hanging baskets and will provide a continuous colour
throughout the summer and autumn. The fibrous rooted variety are more suitable for the garden
beds. The tubers have a convex side which is planted downwards, the concave side will posses the
new growth and faces upwards. Plant in a pot with a thin layer of gravel/shingle to allow for
drainage then the remainder with compost and plant the tuber just beneath the surface.
The range of colourful begonias available ensure hanging baskets are a great addition to any garden.
The canna lily is a rhizome (underground stem) and the large bold tropical leaves and striking
flowers make for a terrific display and should be planted in full sun and a sheltered location away
from strong winds. Plant the rhizomes, with the growing points facing upwards, 100mm deep with
500mm spacing between each one for a superb summer display and then water thoroughly.
It is highly recommended to use a soil thermometer probe before the planting of summer bulbs, then
one can be sure the necessary soil temperature of 13c has been reached for a successful summer
It is a month which at times can show signs of spring and entice one to partake in some gardening. Indeed, if the weather is genial then February is the ideal month to prune those plants which belong to the RHS category of Group Six pruning.
Essentially, these are the plants which flower late summer to autumn and on the current new seasons stems and growth.
Examples of plants which adhere to Group Six pruning are:
As these shrubs flower on the same years growth a hard prune is required during the month of February and as in the case of the hardy Fuschias almost down to ground level, this can be extremely therapeutic too for the person who is doing the pruning. Perovskia ‘Blue Spire’ which exhibits a wonderful display of blue-lilac flowers, also known as Russian Sage, will benefit immensely from a hard prune back to its basal shoots. Perovskia thrives in many coastal areas and in many soil types and with aromatic leaves akin to sage and an appearance similar to lavender it makes an excellent low lying hedgerow.
Buddleja Davidii also known as the ‘Butterfly Bush’ can be cut down, using large pruners, to approximately half a metre from the ground, this will encourage upright shoots with a slight arching habit and will be greatly appreciated by the butterflies.
As a rule of thumb for shrubs which adhere to Group Six pruning, cut back the previous years flowering stems to one or two buds from the older framework.
Certain types of Clematis will also be required to have a hard prune in February, this is particularly the case for Herbaceous Clematis, Gypsy Queen and Clematis Viticella. They all flower on the current seasons growth in late summer and if they are not pruned annually the stems will be devoid of flowers and only up high will the flowers grow and most often amongst a tangled mass of growth. It must be noted that Clematis has its own pruning group classification, those which flower in late summer fall into Clematis Group 3, whereas, those which flower in early summer and on older wood or the previous years growth fall into Clematis Group 2. If unsure when to prune, then observe the time of year the Clematis will come into flower.
For the kitchen gardeners, autumn raspberries will fall into Pruning Group Six.
All old canes should be cut back down to ground level in February and the new canes will start to grow in spring and then fruit in late summer. It is important not to mistake summer raspberries for the autumn variety, as they fruit on the previous years canes, which would result in a loss of crop.
Contribution By Oliver David Cook
Hello everyone, Green Landscapes Cornwall are sharing with you some ideas about how to implement different features for your garden!