Plants which possess silver foliage can compliment a garden in many different ways, they provide a distinct contrast planted alongside green foliage and they can provide an all year round interest, brightening up an otherwise lacklustre area of the garden. But, it is not only a dull area that can benefit from the addition of a glaucous colour, a great attribute of silver/grey foliage is the ability to reflect sunlight and conserve water, this is enhanced by the hairy type foliage or a waxy texture of the leaves which many possess.
Many of theses plants are native to hot and dry areas and therefore drought tolerant, requiring low maintenance and will perform well in a full sun area of the garden with well drained soil.
Silver foliage adds elegance and a cool sophistication to the garden and can be found on large trees down to small ground cover shrubs and perennials. Eucalyptus, the snow gum tree, is one of the hardiest of Eucalyptus and the grey
tinged leaves on white twigs radiates an impression of silver, complimented by a grey /white smooth trunk.
Pittosporum tenuifolium ‘Silver Queen’ is a large shrub which can grow to a height of four metres. Its latin name denotes thin leaves, these having white markings on the edges, giving an affect of a silvery foliage. It is an ideal plant for coastal areas. Popular small to mid-sized shrubs are lavender and Helichrysum, both release pleasant aromas, the latter being more known as the Curry plant due to its distinct curry fragrance.
With regards to small shrubs and perennials, there are plenty available and more to choose from. Convolvulus cneorm is a small shrub native to the mediterranean and displays silk grey hairs on its evergreen foliage, hence it being more known as the Silver Bush. Santolina or Cotton lavender is ideal for ground cover and filling in gaps within the borders, the yellow pompom flowers provide a nice contrast with the silver fragrant foliage.
Another popular ground cover is the perennial Lambs Ear or
. It is also known as Silver Carpet and has oval, woolly silver leaves with fine hairs and is suitable for the front of borders, covering areas with its carpet, mat forming
characteristics. There are numerous other silver foliage plants, the following are popular;
- Senecio cineraria/Silver Dust
- Sea Holly/ Eryngiums.
- Cardoon/Cynara cardunculus
- Honeywort/Cerinthe major
- Rose Campion/Lychnis coronaria
- Brunnera macrophylla/Jack Frost
If not already in possession of silver leaf plants, then why not incorporate some into the garden, either in shade or full sun areas and if every cloud has a silver lining, then surely every garden should have some silver foliage.
Frogs and toads are a great indicator of a thriving ecosystem existing within the garden, it is therefore advisable to create a welcoming environment for them to live.
They are classified as bioindicators, a living organism which represents the health of the garden, similar to worms and lichens and if any toxins or harsh chemicals are present then these bioindicators may perish. The greatest benefit frogs and toads have to offer is their diet, they consume a variety of insects, a natural method of eliminating the unwanted pests and not having to resort to a synthetic pesticide.
March onwards frogspawn and toadspawn can be seen beneath the surface of ponds and streams, frogspawn takes on the appearance of jelly like eggs, whereas, toadspawn has more of a ribbon like character. The frogspawn dots transmute into comma shape, then into unhatched tadpoles and finally the full metamorphosis is complete from tadpole to frog, this final stage can range from one month to several depending on the species. The tadpole diet of algae changes to a
carnivorous diet for the frog. If there is an abundance of algae and a congenial environment the tadpole can delay its transformation into a frog. However, if algae is sparse and predators abound then they will transform into a frog sooner.
To encourage frogs and toads into the garden a natural environment will have to be created for them which resembles their natural habitat in the wild. Firstly, when choosing plants and shrubs, if possible incorporate native plants, shrubs and grasses opposed to non-native or invasive plants.
The addition of a pond or water-feature is an axiom, it is the breeding ground and without doubt the greatest enticement to allure the amphibians, but ensure the pond has a natural, informal edge creating easier access and wildlife friendly.
Its not just presence of water but also compost heaps, piles of logs or stones where they can seek shelter and prey on slugs and insects too.
It is reputed that frogs and toads can consume up to an astounding one hundred insects each day, this being extremely beneficial to the entire garden including the vegetable garden, thus, requiring little need for pesticides.
Chemicals accumulate in water and being that frogs and toads requiring a moist, damp environment, they would suffer immensely from the run off of pesticide use. For a well balanced ecosystem to exist then why not encourage frogs and toads into the garden, a delight to listen to in during the summer and a natural way to keep the pests at bay.
We often strive for an orderly and well maintained garden, one which looks tidy with regular pruning, mowing of lawns and the weeding of garden beds. Aesthetically pleasing and satisfying this may be, the garden, however, becomes devoid of any mess and untidiness, and this in due course can have an adverse affect on the wildlife and beneficial insects.
The beneficial insects being those which create a natural ecological balance within the garden, attracting a range of prey and predators. These insects and mammals work in harmony and will reduce the unwanted pests which can attack the vegetable garden and shrubs alike. They will also lessen the need for any chemical applications. To entice these insects into the garden, a suitable, natural habitat is required, and the most appropriate is a dead wood habitat, essentially, a pile of logs or a wood stack.
Winter is an ideal time to procure the dead wood, either from gathering any fallen branches within the garden or by pruning the dead limbs and branches, particularly from deciduous trees and shrubs. Avoid collecting the wood from natural woodlands and hedgerows as this will be disrupting an existing habitat and the natural environment.
Alternatively, ask neighbours if they have any excess dead wood they are wanting rid of, I am sure it would be greatly appreciated.
The location of the wood pile within the garden is critical for a successful dead wood habitat, it should be away from direct sunlight and sited in a full shade area, or with dapple light. This environment will augment the wood decay and encourage fungi, mosses, lichens and insects.
To construct a log pile it is advisable to find logs with the bark still attached, the bottom layer of say four to five logs to be partially buried into the ground, the decaying wood beneath the soil’s surface attracts certain types of beetle. Ensure there are nooks and crannies for insects and mammals to enter and then add leaf litter into the gaps to encourage hedgehogs seeking hibernation. Another couple of log rows can be placed on top, the dark and damp conditions will lure centipedes, millipedes and woodlice which in turn attract the predators such as birds, toads and hedgehogs.
A wood stack is constructed with smaller branches and twigs and is just as beneficial as a log pile for wildlife. Firstly, it is recommended that branches/stakes are driven vertically into the ground, forming a rectangular shape and with approximately half metre remaining above ground.
Then start with laying the larger branches at the bottom and begin to fill the formed rectangular shape with the remaining branches and twigs until the desired height is reached.
A mixture of wood is good for both log pile and wood stack, however, poplar and willow cuttings can have a tendency to re-sprout if in prolonged contact with the ground. The wood will slowly decay over a duration of time and more can always be added, thus, a permanent home has now been created to encourage the beneficial insects and assist
towards a balanced ecological garden. If unsure how to dispose of the logs and wood cuttings, then why not transmute them into a dead wood habitat, as dead wood breeds life.
December is an ideal time to plan a garden reset or makeover in preparation for the following spring and if not practising already why not try cold frame gardening.
Cold frame gardening is a method of planting different types of green life, mainly produce, in a microclimate created by a man-made structure.
The addition of a cold frame within the garden enables the growing season to be extended. They are versatile, require little surface area, ideal for a small garden and are easy to build, alternatively, they can be purchased flat pack or ready-made from an established retailer.
Essentially a cold frame is a bottomless box with a skylight, a halfway house between a greenhouse and exterior planting.
They can be positioned directly onto any garden bed and assist in warming bare soil in early spring.
The transparent lid allows the sunlight to enter and simultaneously prevents heat loss by convection which would otherwise normally occur, particularly during the night. Thus, a microclimate is generated with an increase in soil and air temperature and also providing protection against the elements, such as strong wind, rain, hail and even snow. Plants can be started earlier in spring, such as seedlings which can then be transplanted to open ground once established.
A variety of produce can be grown in a cold frame, the most popular being lettuce, spinach, kale and green onions. However, a variety of root vegetables and brassica can be grown too.
When deciding to position the cold frame, take in consideration that full sun is essential and the transparent cover should slope downwards at a slight angle facing southwards to absorb the heat from the sun and to allow for rain run off.
A cold frame can be constructed from any material, the sides being of a solid material such as wood or masonry and the top being of a transparent material such as glass. A wooden structure can look aesthetically pleasing as well as being portable too, whereas, brick or block structure will be a more permanent feature and choice of location should be greatly
considered before building.
The most simple method of construction being straw bales used as sides and an old disused glass window or door placed on top. Imagination is key!
It can be designed and built to suit your particular needs, hinges and handles attached for ease of opening the cover and if preferred one crop could occupy the entire cold frame or a combination of crops in rotation to provide produce throughout the year. It is important to ensure the transparent cover is clear from any debris, as this will inhibit heat absorption and with crops being under cover, regular watering will be required. Increased humidity can be a problem within a small enclosed area, therefore, allow for slight ventilation within the cold frame structure.
Specific frame designs are available so they can be positioned on a hard landscaped surface such as paving. These can take on the appearance of a miniature greenhouse and more suitable for potted plants.
Cold frames are cheap to buy, easy to build and easy to maintain. They can be sited directly onto a garden bed, gravel or a paved surface and are a valuable addition to any garden, large or small. A mobile and modular solution for growing plants, lower in price and occupying less space in comparison to a greenhouse, there are many advantages of
cold frame gardening.
contribution from Oliver David Cook
The pumpkin is characteristic of autumn and synonymous with October and Halloween, it is also variety of squash and its true name being a cucurbita, which is the latin name for gourd. A gourd being a trailing or climbing plant, containing large fleshy fruits with a hard skin, some varieties being edible, others for decoration.
As a guide, the middle of October is an ideal time for harvesting of squash and pumpkin, however, one should be vigilant, they are frost tender and to harvest before the first frost is strongly advisable.
Allow the fruit to mature and colour wholly on the plant prior to the harvest, the colour being dependant on the type and variety which is grown.
The skins should be hard and not easily dented by a fingernail and its shine will also be slightly diminished. A soft outer skin will be susceptible to damage and eventual rot.
If the fruit cannot be harvested before a frost or a large amount of rainfall, then it is recommended to raise the fruit off from the ground, thus it is not in contact with the soil to lessen the chance of rot and infection. This can be done by the use of straw, cardboard or a solid object such as wood or a brick.
To reduce the chances of disease and infections it is best to harvest on a dry day and using a sharp knife or pruners and cut the stalk as far from the fruit as possible, ideally 10cm. The stem remaining intact with the fruit is essential for good health and storage and for this reason do not be tempted to carry them by their stems, the weight of the fruit causing it to brake off.
The fruit can then be cured, which entails leaving them exposed to higher a temperature, either outside or inside on a windowsill for approximately ten days.
This curing will improve flavour, heal any wounds and harden the skin. After they have been cured they can store for two to three months in a cool, dry and dark environment, ideally about 10c. However, beware that it does not become too
cold as they may soften and begin to rot.
During storage, ensure they are not touching each other and preferably, they are on a wooden surface or cardboard, do not store on concrete as it will increase the chances of rot.
Certain varieties of squash and pumpkins are suitable for a longer winter storage, whereas, others are best to be consumed this autumn, therefore, it is best to check which type you are harvesting. The popular squash varieties being the butternut, the golden butternut (coquina) and the striped harlequin are enjoyed with great gusto soon after harvesting.
Pumpkins which are best for consumption are not usually the best for Halloween carving and Jack-O-Lanterns. A rule of thumb being a smaller denser pumpkin will contain more flesh and are best for cooking, whereas, a larger pumpkin will have more area for artwork and with less flesh it will be easier to carve.
Gourds are extremely high in nutrients and being classified as a fruit they contain seeds too, which can also be salvaged and consumed.
It maybe for the culinary delights or for decorative purposes, either way, enjoy the wonderful squash and pumpkin which nature has provided us and after Halloween, why not return the pumpkin to the natural environment and use it as a bird feeder? It will be greatly appreciated.
Contribution by Oliver David Cook
Early autumn is an ideal month to divide the herbaceous perennials of the garden. These are the flowering plants which die back each winter, the roots remaining dormant beneath the soil until the arrival of the following spring, this bringing warmer temperatures which triggers new growth to commence once again.
There are a variety available, producing a beautiful array of colours for the entire summer season. Popular herbaceous perennials are:
The question is why to divide?
Herbaceous perennials can outgrow their space and look rather messy, particularly in the centres and after division, older plants will have an opportunity to rejuvenate.
The garden beds overall may have become overcrowded with plants encroaching on others adjacent to them and without dividing, the following summer the crowding will augment.
It is a productive method to increase the number of plants within the garden and to fill any empty spaces that may exist, this being division is quicker in comparison to growing from seed. It can also save money, if the garden has recently been landscaped then it is an excellent way of adding plants and colour to a newly formed bed.
When dividing, it is advisable to cut down the summer growth of the taller plants near to the base, then with a garden fork gently lift the plant working outwards from the centre as the most vigorous growth is found on the outer areas of the clump. Alternatively, the traditional method of digging deeper around the perimeter of the plant with the intention of
lifting the entire perennial.
A spade can be used on the tougher plants such as Hostas and slicing the clump in two after being lifted.
The smaller plants such as Geraniums, clumps from the outer edges can be lifted using a garden spade, then once lifted, they can be divided again into smaller clumps with the use of a sharp knife.
Perennials with tubers or rhizomes may naturally fall apart when dug, otherwise the tubers are often visible above ground, indicating where to divide.
The divisions should be planted as soon as possible and well watered, part of the clump could be replanted in the same position or a different area of the garden.
It is beneficial to clean the soil from the roots, the advantage being the health of the roots can be seen as one does not wish to replant damaged or diseased roots or tubers. When ever a plant is lifted it is subjected to shock, however, during the dormant time of autumn the shock is less profound. The plants growth cycle after division will be slow as it
recovers from this disturbance. The age old saying being;
‘After you divide a perennial, the first year it sleeps, the second it creeps, and the third
year it leaps’.
Contribution courtesy of Oliver David Cook on behalf of Green Landscapes Cornwall Ltd
Lavender is without doubt one of the most popular shrubs to be found in any garden and with good reason too, providing a plethora of pleasures from the amazing aroma to the wonderful lilac flowers, particularly as they sway hither and thither in a gentle summer breeze. Planted alongside paths and walkways, as a small hedge, the perfume emitted is
therapeutic for the person, whilst at the same time attracting butterflies and bees. Planting lavender in clumps or in hedge form ensues a profusion of blossom and is more beneficial for the insects as it means they can jump from flower to flower with ease, compared to a sporadic planting plan.
Towards the end of August is the favourable time to prune and harvest the flowers, the soil temperature is at its warmest and once pruned the plant will have an opportunity to grow new shoots before the approaching winter, these shoots will then spring into life the following year.
Lavender angustifolia is by far the most suitable to grow here in the UK, the varieties Hidcote and Munstead being the most popular, the latter producing a slightly darker flower.
Both fall into the RHS pruning group 10 classification, meaning they flower on new wood and regular pruning will prevent them from becoming too woody.
The best time of day to harvest lavender for its aromatic properties is early morning, during this time the oils of the flowers are most profound. As the daytime temperature increases the fragrant oils dissipate and the flowers will then begin to open up more and this is the desired time to harvest for decorative purposes.
It is important to use sharp secateurs or shears for pruning as a clean cut is essential and one must avoid from cutting too low into the wood stem section as this will prohibit any new growth which is formed on the upper section only. Aim for cutting one third of the leaf section and in doing so forming a nice evenly rounded mound for aesthetic purposes
The cut stems and flowers can be bundled together with an elastic band or garden twine and hung for drying away from direct sunlight and in a dry sheltered location. Once the lavender has dried, approximately 3 weeks, the buds can be rubbed or shaken off and stored in a lidded jar.
There are numerous applications for dried lavender with imagination being key. The reputed therapeutic benefits include induced calmness, promoting sleep and lowering the heart rate all attributing to a more relaxed state.
To enhance the aromas of the house, dried lavender can be used to aid cleaning with a sprinkling of the flowers on carpet prior to vacuuming to release the fragrance.
Lavender oils also have multitudinous benefits and uses and a visit to the UK’s most southerly lavender farm based here in Cornwall is highly recommended. Here a wide range of products can be purchased, providing much inspiration too.
Contribution by Oliver David Cook on behalf of Green Landscapes Cornwall Ltd
THE CHELSEA CHOP
When one talks of gardening in the month of May, without doubt the Chelsea flower show
will spring to mind. However, due to the unprecedented events this year and the prohibition
of the coming together of large groups of people and social gatherings has equated to the
nations favourite flower show unfortunately being cancelled.
For the first ever time the show will be a virtual event which can be viewed online:
Nevertheless, just because there is no actual Chelsea flower show it does not mean that
we cannot partake in the Chelsea Chop.
The Chelsea Chop, to clarify, is a pruning method to determine the size, shape and the
flowering season of many of the herbaceous perennial plants. It is so called as it is carried
out towards the end of May, coinciding with the RHS Chelsea Flower Show.
It is suitable for late flowering perennials. But, why should we carry out the Chelsea Chop?
It goes against the natural instinct to drastically cut back a plant prior to flowering.
If a herbaceous perennial is chopped down to half its height, using secateurs or shears, it
will delay the flowering until later in the summer. The plant will be more compact and
shorter which equates to less staking and the flowers can be more numerous if slightly
smaller. This is because the top shoots have been eliminated and side shoots lower down
will develop and produce the new flowers. Overall, the plants will look much tidier and less
If only half of the perennial clump is cut down, such as the front section, this will induce a
prolonged flowering season as the rear section will flower first, then followed later by the
pruned front section.
Plants which can benefit from the Chelsea Chop are:
- Phlox paniculata
- Echinacea purpurea
The following are suitable for coastal gardens:
- Anthemis tinctoria
- Sedum ‘Herbstfreude’
- Aster ‘michaelmas daisy’
The Chelsea Chop is hugely beneficial for perennials subjected to the coastal environment
of wind and salt spray. The chop creating shorter and stiffer stems and more stability.
The Chelsea Flower Show will be greatly missed this year, so why not visit the gardeners
world website and their own guide to carrying out the Chelsea Chop.
Hello everyone, Green Landscapes Cornwall are sharing with you some ideas about how to implement different features for your garden!